RESEARCH

Breakthroughs that make a measurable difference


Research Publications


To see examples of how LENA technology has advanced the following areas of research, simply click on a title to browse by subject area.

For a complete listing, download the bibliographies of journal publications and LENA user research presentations.

VanDam, M., Oller, D. K., Ambrose, S. E., Gray, S., Richards, J. A., Xu, D., . . . Moeller, M. P. (2015). Automated vocal analysis of children with hearing loss and their typical and atypical peers. Ear and Hearing, 36(4), e146-e152. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000138

Ambrose, S. E., VanDam, M., & Moeller, M. P. (2014). Linguistic input, electronic media, and communication outcomes of toddlers with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 35(2), 139-147. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182a76768

Aragon, M., & Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2012). Using Language ENvironment Analysis to improve outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33(04), 340-353. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1326918

Suskind, D. L., Leffel, K. R., Graf, E., Hernandez, M. W., Gunderson, E. A., Sapolich, S. G., . . . Levine, S. C. (2015). A parent-directed language intervention for children of low socioeconomic status: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Child Language. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/S0305000915000033

Zhang, Y., Xu, X., Jiang, F., Gilkerson, J., Xu, D., Richards, J. A., . . . Topping, K. J. (2015). Effects of quantitative linguistic feedback to caregivers of young children: A pilot study in China. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 37(1), 16-24. doi: 10.1177/1525740115575771

Suskind, D., Leffel, K. R., Hernandez, M. W., Sapolich, S. G., Suskind, E., Kirkham, E., & Meehan, P. (2013). An exploratory study of “quantitative linguistic feedback”: Effect of LENA feedback on adult language production. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 34(2), 1-11. doi: 10.1177/1525740112473146

Sosa, A. V. (2016). Association of the type of toy used during play with the quantity and quality of parent-infant communication. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(2), 132-137. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics2015.3753

Christakis, D. A., Gilkerson, J., Richards, J. A., Zimmerman, F. J., Garrison, M. M., Xu, D., . . . Yapanel, U. (2009). Audible television and decreased adult words, infant vocalizations, and conversational turns: a population-based study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(6), 554-558. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.61

Zimmerman, F. J., Gilkerson, J., Richards, J. A., Christakis, D. A., Xu, D., Gray, S., & Yapanel, U. (2009). Teaching by listening: The importance of adult-child conversations to language development. Pediatrics, 124(1), 342-349. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2267

Burgess, S., Audet, L., & Harjusola-Webb, S. (2013). Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46(5-6), 428-439. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2013.09.003

Irvin, D. W., Hume, K., Boyd, B. A., McBee, M. T., & Odom, S. L. (2013). Child and classroom characteristics associated with the adult language provided to preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(8), 947-955. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.04.004

Wiggin, M., Gabbard, S., Thompson, N., Goberis, D., & Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (2012). The school to home link: Summer preschool and parents. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33(04), 290-296. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1326919

Wood, C., Diehm, E. A., & Callender, M. F. (2016). An investigation of language environment analysis measures for Spanish-English bilingual preschoolers from migrant low-socioeconomic-status backgrounds. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 47(2), 123-134. doi: 10.1044/2015_LSHSS-14-0115

Suskind, D. L., Leffel, K. R., Graf, E., Hernandez, M. W., Gunderson, E. A., Sapolich, S. G., . . . Levine, S. C. (2015). A parent-directed language intervention for children of low socioeconomic status: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Child Language. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/S0305000915000033

Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2143-2152. doi: 10.1177/0956797613488145

Ambrose, S. E., VanDam, M., & Moeller, M. P. (2014). Linguistic input, electronic media, and communication outcomes of toddlers with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 35(2), 139-147. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182a76768

Caskey, M., Stephens, B., Tucker, R., & Vohr, B. (2014). Adult talk in the NICU with preterm infants and developmental outcomes. Pediatrics, 133(3), 1-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0104

Caskey, M., Stephens, B., Tucker, R., & Vohr, B. (2014). Adult talk in the NICU with preterm infants and developmental outcomes. Pediatrics, 133(3), 1-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0104

Caskey, M., & Vohr, B. (2013). Assessing language and language environment of high risk infants and children: A new approach. Acta Paediatrica, 102(03), 1-11. doi: 10.1111/apa.12195

Caskey, M., Stephens, B., Tucker, R., & Vohr, B. (2011). Importance of parent talk on the development of preterm infant vocalizations. Pediatrics. Online publication. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0609

Dykstra, J., Sabatos-DeVito, M. G., Irvin, D. W., Boyd, B. A., Hume, K. A., & Odom, S. L. (2012). Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 17(6), 582-594. doi: 10.1177/1362361312446206

Oller, D. K., Niyogi, P., Gray, S., Richards, J. A., Gilkerson, J., Xu, D., . . . Warren, S. F. (2010). Automated vocal analysis of naturalistic recordings from children with autism, language delay, and typical development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(30), 13354-13359. doi:10.1073/pnas.1003882107

Warren, S. F., Gilkerson, J., Richards, J. A., Oller, D. K., Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2010). What automated vocal analysis reveals about the vocal production and language learning environment of young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(5), 555-569. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0902-5

Li, L., Vikani, A. R., Harris, G. C., & Lin, F. R. (2014). Feasibility study to quantify the auditory and social environment of older adults using a Digital Language Processor. Otology & Neurotology, 35(8), 1301-1305. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000489

Wang, Z., Pan, X., Miller, K. F., & Cortina, K. S. (2014). Automatic classification of activities in classroom discourse. Computers & Education, 78, 115-123. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.010

Wang, Z., Miller, K., & Cortina, K. (2013). Using the LENA in teacher training: Promoting student involvement through automated feedback. Unterrichtswissenschaf, 41(4), 290-305.

Canault, M., Le Normand, M. T., Foudil, S., Loundon, N., & Thai-Van, H. (2015). Reliability of the Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA™) in European French. Behavior Research Methods. Advance online publication. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015-0634-8

Gilkerson, J., Zhang, Y., Xu, D., Richards, J. A., Xu, X., Jiang, F., . . . Topping, K. (2015). Evaluating LENA System performance for Chinese: A pilot study in Shanghai. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(2), 445-452. doi: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0014

Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2143-2152. doi: 10.1177/0956797613488145

Right from Birth: Eliminating the Talk Gap in Young Children

Read Dr. Steve Warren’s white paper describing the challenges presented by the “word gap” discovered by Hart and Risley in 1995 and the evidence-based strategies that are the core of LENA’s technology and programs. Download the paper.

LENA Conference Archives


At LENA Conferences 2010 to 2013, early LENA users gathered to share research and exchange best practices. In 2015, exploring LENA technology’s expanding role in intervention programs, we brought together experts in brain science, education, behavioral psychology, and economic and public health policy to discuss the most innovative options for closing academic and achievement gaps, starting right from birth. Visit each year’s archives to view posters and presentations from past LENA Conferences.

Download the bibliography of LENA Conference presentations.

LENA Conference 2015: Parents Have the Power


LENA International Conference 2013


First LENA Users Conference 2010